Manuka Honey

Manuka Honey

Manuka Honey is a unique honey from New Zealand renowned for its special properties which include the presence of the naturally occurring compound methylglyoxal. Research continues to uncover the many attributes of Manuka Honey.

Identification and Quantitation of 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline in Manuka Honey (Leptospermum scoparium).

J Agric Food Chem. 2015 Sep 12.

Rückriemen J, Schwarzenbolz U, Adam S, Henle T.


Manuka honey from New Zealand is known for its exceptional antibacterial activity, which is due to high amounts of the 1,2-dicarbonyl compound methylglyoxal (MGO). MGO in manuka honey is formed via non-enzymatic dehydration from dihydroxyacetone (DHA) during honey maturation. MGO and DHA are highly reactive substances, leading to a variety of unique chemical reactions. During Strecker degradation of proline and MGO, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2-AP), an important aroma compound, is formed. Using liquid-liquid extraction and GC-MS analysis, 2-AP was identified unambiguously in manuka honey for the first time. Quantitation was carried out via external matrix calibration, using a synthetic 2-AP standard and artificial honey. The 2-AP concentration in 11 commercial samples of manuka honey ranged from 0.08 to 0.45 mg/kg. For manuka honey samples containing MGO in concentrations above 250 mg/kg, significantly higher amounts of 2-AP were found when compared to non-manuka honeys. When high amounts of MGO were artificially added to non-manuka multifloral honey, an increase of the 2-AP concentration from 0.07 to 0.40 mg/kg after 12 weeks of storage at 37 °C was observed, concomitant with a significant increase in the concentration of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). No increase of 2-AP was found during storage at ambient temperature. 2-AP together with MGO can be a suitable parameter for the quality control of manuka honey.